Tools & Resources

Addressing Pain Management & Opioid Use/Abuse

This section contains relevant and up-to-date resources, tools and templates to help employers with the issues and challenges faced when creating a strategy for pain management in a covered population.

Employer Resources

For Employees & Dependents

Tools & Templates


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  1. Employer Guide to Pain Management. MGBH in collaboration with Pfizer, 2018 (retrieved March 22, 2018)
  2. Opioid Overdose: Understanding the Epidemic. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (retrieved March 22, 2018)
  3. Opioid Overdose Crisis. National Institute on Drug Abuse, (retrieved March 22, 2018)
  4. Pain Management and the Opioid Epidemic: Balancing Societal and Individual Benefits and Risks of Prescription Opioid Use. A Consensus Study Report of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, Medicine, 2017 (retrieved March 22, 2018)
  5. Guy G, Zhang K, Bohm M, Losby J, Lewis B, Young R, Murphy L, Dowell D. Vital Signs: Changes in Opioid Prescribing in the United States 2006 – 2015. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report July 7, 2017
  6. New Study Reveals 32 Percent of Total Opioid Prescriptions Are Being Abused. Castlight Press Release, April 20, 2016 (retrieved March 22, 2018)
  7. Kosten T, George T. The Neurobiology of Opioid Dependence: Implications for Treatment. Science & Practice Perspectives 2002 July
  8. Shah A, Hayes C, Martin B. Characteristics of Initial Prescription Episodes and Likelihood of Long-Term Opioid Use – United States, 2006 – 2015. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report March 17, 2017
  9. Prescription pain killers and the workforce. Safety & Health Magazine September 27, 2015. National Safety Council (retrieved March 22, 2018)
  10. Goplerud E, Hodge S, Benham T. A Substance Use Cost Calculator for US Employers with an Emphasis on Prescription Pain Medication Misuse. J Occup Environ Med 2017 Nov; 59(11): 1063–1071
  11. The proactive role employers can take: Opioids in the workplace. National Safety Council, (retrieved March 23, 2018)
  12. Mack K, McCall Jones C, McClure RJ. Physician Dispensing of Oxycodone and Other Commonly Used Opioids, 2000–2015, United States. Pain Medicine 2017 March
  13. Barnett M, Olenski A, Jena A. Opioid-Prescribing Patterns of Emergency Physicians and Risk of Long-Term Use. N Engl J Med 2017; 376:663-73
  14. Kea B, Fu R, Lowe R, Sun B. Interpreting the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey: United States Emergency Department Opioid Prescribing 2006 – 2010. Acad Emerg Med 2016 February; 23(2): 159-165
  15. Relieving Pain in America: A Blueprint for Transforming Prevention, Care, Education, and Research. Institute of Medicine (US) Committee on Advancing Pain Research, Care, and Education. Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US); 2011, (retrieved March 23, 2018)
  16. DeMik D, Bedard N, Dowdle SB, Burnett R, McHugh M, Callaghan J. Are We Still Prescribing Opioids for Osteoarthritis? The Journal of Athroplasty 2017 December
  17. Wiese A, Griffin M, Stein CM, Mitchel E, Grijalva C. Opioid Analgesics and the Risk of Serious Infections Among Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Self-Controlled Case Series Study. Arthritis Rheumatol 2016 February; 68(2):323–331
  18. Curtis J, Xie F, Smith C, Saag K, Chen L, Beukelman T, Mannion M, Yun H, Kertes S. Changing Trends in Opioid Use Among Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis in the United States. Arthritis & Rheumatology Vol. 69, No. 9, September 2017, pp 1733–1740
  19. Zamora-Legoff J, Achenbach S, Crowson C, Krause M, Davis J, Matteson E. Opioid Use in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis 2005–2014: A Population-Based Comparative Study. Clin Rheumatol. 2016 May; 35(5):1137–1144
  20. Gerner P, Poeran J, Cozowicz C, Morwald E, Zubizarreta N, Mazumdar M, Memtsoudis SG. "Multimodal Pain Management in Total Hip and Knee Arthroplasty – Trends over the Last 10 Years." Poster presented at: American Society of Anesthesiologists 2017 Annual Meeting; October 21 – 24; Boston, MA
  21. Peng X, Robins RL, Mease P, Kroenke K, Williams DA, Chen Y et al. Long-term Evaluation of Opioid Treatment in Fibromyalga. Clin J Pain. 2015 Jan; 31(1):7-13 <
  22. Gota Characteristics of fibromyalgia patients prescribed opioid medications: Data from the Cleveland Clinic fibromyalgia registry. Int. J. Clin. Rheumatol. (2018) 13(2), 82-93
  23. Bateman B, Franklin J, Bykov K, Avorn J, Shrank W, Brennan T, Landon J, Rathmell P, Huybrechts K, Fischer M, Choudhry N. Persistent opioid use following cesarean delivery: patterns and predictors among opioid-naive women. American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology 2016 September
  24. Wilner A, Sharma B, Thompson A, Krueger A. Analgesic opioid use in a health-insured epilepsy population during 2012. Epilepsy & Behavior 57 (2016) 126–132
  25. Paulozzi L, Zhou C, Jones C, Xu L, Florence C. Changes in the medical management of patients on opioid analgesics following a diagnosis of substance abuse. Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety 2016; 25: 545–552
  26. Choice D. 3 key steps to help mitigate pain in the workplace. Employee Benefits News. December 6, 2017
  27. Relieving Pain in America: A Blueprint for Transforming Prevention, Care, Education, and Research. Institute of Medicine (US) Committee on Advancing Pain Research, Care, and Education. Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US); 2011
  28. Cognitive behavioral therapy for chronic pain: Can CBT help fight the opioid epidemic? ScienceDaily, 9 November 2017
  29. Frieden T, Houry D. Reducing the Risks of Relief – The CDC Opioid Prescribing Guideline. N Engl J Med 2016; 374:1501-1504
  30. Complementary, Alternative or Integrative Health: What’s in a Name? National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health, NIH (retrieved March 27, 2018)
  31. Ghildayal N, Johnson PJ, Evans R, Kreitzer MJ. Complementary and Alternative Medicine Use in the US Adult Back Pain Population. Glob Adv Health Med 2016 Jan; 5(1): 69–78
  32. Drug Utilization Review. Academy of Managed Care Pharmacy, (retrieved March 27, 2018)
  33. How the Prescription Drug Crisis is Impacting American Employers, National Safety Council 2017 (retrieved March 28, 2018)
  34. Friend, Lucy. Reasons for Employee Drug Testing. Small Business -, (retrieved March 28, 2018)
  35. Bergman C, Moebus J. New Rules for Absence Management. International Foundation of Employee Benefit Plans (IFEBP), April 3, 2017